BafilomycinA1 br sRb LSC br and for hydrophilic
and for hydrophilic amino acid, the equivalent impedance ZHp is,
Fig. 1. Electrical gene sensor. Gene primary structure is made of amino acids. The corresponding electrical equivalent network is modeled for the polypeptide chain. The individual amino BafilomycinA1 models are cascaded together to make equivalent network. Rb represents the backbone, where Lsc and Csc represent the hydrophobic and hydrophilic side chain respectively. The Gene equivalent network is converted into Gene Sensor in Laplace domain.
Gene name MYC associated factor X TSC22 domain family member 3 Ribosomal protein L34 DnaJ heat shock protein family (Hsp40) member B1 High mobility group box 1 SERTA domain containing 1 Myeloperoxidase Hemoglobin subunit alpha 1 Thioredoxin C-reactive protein Apolipoprotein E Sex hormone binding globulin Matrix metalloproteinase-8 Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha 1 subunit Enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit Plasminogen activator, urokinase receptor Tumor protein p63 Harakiri, BCL2 interacting protein
Role in cancer Develops medulloblastoma and glioblastoma Promotes hepatocellular carcinoma Pomotes malignant proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer cells Promotes cancer cell growth Associated with progression and poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer Promotes tumor growth Progresses breast cancer Higher in cervical carcinoma Overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues Associated with lung cancer and colorectal cancer ﬀAects the development and prognosis of gastric cancer Associated with prostate cancer Induces the expression of interleukins 6 and 8 in breast cancer cells Associated with prostate cancer Prostate tumor progression Associated with head and neck cancer Expressed in human lung cancer Associated with prostate cancer
Gene ID MAX TSC22D3 RPL34 DNAJB1 HMGB1 SERTAD1 MPO HBA1 TXN CRP APOE SHBG MMP8 PDHA1 EZH2 uPAR p51 HRK
Table 2Homosapiens genes Gene nature Very hydrophilic
2.2. Realization of electrical network for gene using amino acid string model
Amino acids are cascaded with each other to form the gene primary structure, as shown in Fig. 1. Likewise, the n numbers of amino acid circuit models are cascaded in the series using 1st Foster topology (Daryanani and Resh, 1969) to model electrical network of gene. This network is converted into an equivalent electrical gene circuit and the impedances of amino acid circuits are replaced by equivalent im-pedance Zneq of gene. The length of amino acid string determines the number of cascaded electrical circuit for specific gene.
For amino acid chain of length three, the electrical circuit is ob-tained by attaching three amino acids in series. The equivalent im-pedance for amino acid chain length two to arbitrary length n is
Zb + ZSC
Zeq = Zeq
2.3. Realization of gene sensor transfer function model
The gene network is excited by AC signal and responses are mea-sured across load resistance RL. This network is transformed into Laplace domain network which is known as gene sensor as in Fig. 1. The voltage source is denoted by Vin(s) and the equivalent impedance by Zn(s) where n denotes the number of amino acids in the gene; s is La-place frequency given by jω, where ω is 2π times the frequency and j is square root of −1. The output voltage Vout(s) induced across the load and the sensor transfer function for gene are expressed as follows, Vout (s ) = Vin (s ). RL
The transfer function G between output and input of the sensor is the ratio of two polynomials of degree n. For an amino acid chain of length four, the numerator and denominator of the corresponding system model transfer function are both polynomials of degree four. Since Gn is a function of Ri, Ci, Li, RL and Gn-1, and ratio of two poly-nomials, recurrence relation between numerator as well as denominator polynomials of Gn and Gn-1 can be obtained.
For pure hydrophobic gene i.e. gene composed of hydrophobic re-sidues only, the recurrence relations are as follows:
where GnHb = NnHb/DnHb, NnHb and DnHb are numerator and denominator polynomials of degree n, and Rn, Ln are the respective resistance and inductance values of the nth amino acid in the pure hydrophobic gene chain.
Similarly, for pure hydrophilic gene the recurrence relations are as follows:
where NnHp and DnHp are numerator and denominator polynomials of degree n, and Rn, Cn are the resistance and capacitance values of the nth